The M. A. Chidambaram Stadium in Chennai is an international cricket ground with a capacity of 50,000 and houses the Tamil Nadu Cricket Association. Tamils have a long history starting from the pre-historic period. Tamil Nadu has a very ancient history that dates back to some 6000 years and the origin of its people is closely tied to the debates of the Aryan invasion theory. During this final day, Kaanum Pongal – the word kaanum, means 'to view' in Tamil. The eastern parts are fertile coastal plains and the northern parts are a mix of hills and plains. The state government owns Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers,[169] in Karur. According to the 2011 Census, Tamil Nadu is the most urbanised state in India (49 per cent), accounting for 9.6 per cent of the urban population while only comprising 6 per cent of India's total population. [57] The present Governor, Chief Minister and the Chief Justice are Banwarilal Purohit,[58] Edappadi K. Palaniswami[59] and Amreshwar Pratap Sahi[60] respectively. The location was selected because of its nearness to the equator like the Sriharikota spaceport in the Satish Dhawan Space Centre.[186]. Tamil Nadu is one of the states where law and order has been maintained largely successfully. Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola built temples such as the Brihadeshvara Temple of Thanjavur and Brihadeshvara Temple of Gangaikonda Cholapuram, the Airavatesvara Temple of Darasuram and the Sarabeswara (Shiva) Temple, also called the Kampahareswarar Temple at Thirubhuvanam, the last two temples being located near Kumbakonam. [147] The Cauvery delta region is known as the Rice Bowl of Tamil Nadu. Vettuvan Koil, the unfinished temple is believed to have been built during the 8th century by Pandyas in Kalugumalai, a panchayat town in Thoothukudi district. According to official data, the textile industry in Tamil Nadu accounts for 17 per cent of the total invested capital in all the industries. In 1578, the Portuguese published a Tamil book in old Tamil script named 'Thambiraan Vanakkam', thus making Tamil the first Indian language to be printed and published. Since the state is entirely dependent on rains for recharging its water resources, monsoon failures lead to acute water scarcity and severe drought. Some of the schemes introduced by the Tamil Nadu government in school education are. Chennai Super Kings represent the city of Chennai in the Indian Premier League, a popular Twenty20 league. Tamil Nadu Select cardholders in Tamil Nadu to get 5 kg of ‘chana’ free as COVID-19 relief Tamil Nadu ‘Registration of sale agreement no bar to sell property to third party’ The Justice Party which was under E. V. Ramasamy was renamed Dravidar Kazhagam in 1944. [171], Tamil Nadu is the second largest software exporter by value in India. Indian Angiosperm diversity comprises 17,672 species with Tamil Nadu leading all states in the country, with 5640 species accounting for 1/3 of the total flora of India. [199] From a power surplus state in 2005–06, Tamil Nadu has become a state facing severe power shortage over the recent years due to lack of new power generation projects and delay in commercial power generation at Kudankulam Atomic Power Project. The history of Tamil Nadu is very old and goes back to thousands of years back. Airtel Broadband,[191] Act Broadband[192] BSNL, Hathway[193] and few others are providing high speed Fiber Optic broadband connection in many cities & rural areas across Tamil Nadu. [103], Tamil written literature has existed for over 2,000 years. Tamil Nadu History can be traced back to the Prehistoric Period , with the development of Civilization in the Ancient History of Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu falls mostly in a region of low seismic hazard with the exception of the western border areas that lie in a low to moderate hazard zone; as per the 2002 Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) map, Tamil Nadu falls in Zones II and III. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Nirupama Vaidyanathan, the first Indian women to play in a grand slam tournament also hails from the state. [15] The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site, Tamil Brahmi, is "very rudimentary" and date it somewhere between the 5th century BCE and 3rd century BCE. Pre-primary classes form age group 3 to 4. In Adichanallur, 24 km (15 mi) from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India(ASI) unearthed 169 clay urns co… Major railway junctions (four and above lines) in the state are Chennai, Coimbatore, Katpadi, Madurai, Salem, Erode, Dindigul, Karur, Nagercoil, Tiruchirapalli, and Tirunelveli. Vast numbers of bryophytes, lichen, fungi, algae, and bacteria are among the wild plant diversity of Tamil Nadu. In 1969, the scriptwriter turned politician, M. … [190] BSNL provides 2G & 3G mobile internet connections and all other three operators provide 2G, 3G & 4G Mobile broadband connections across Tamil Nadu. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve located in the Western Ghats and Nilgiri Hills comprises part of adjoining states of Kerala and Karnataka. [197] The total installed capacity of electricity in the state by January 2014 was 20,716 MW. Bhukya Ravinder. Tamil Nadu's sugarcane yield per hectare is the highest in India. The fall of the Madurai Nayaks brought up many small Nayakars of southern Tamil Nadu, who ruled small parcels of land called Palayams. Reply . The state has a total road length of 167,000 km (104,000 mi), of which 60,628 km (37,672 mi) are maintained by the Highways Department. Tamil Nadu is home to five declared national parks located in Anamalai, Mudumalai, Mukurithi, Gulf of Mannar, Guindy located in the centre of Chennai city and Vandalur located in South Chennai. At its peak, the empire spanned almost 3,600,000 km2 (1,400,000 sq mi). There are 2,614 Hand Processing Units (25 per cent of total units in the country) and 985 Power Processing Units (40 per cent of total units in the country) in Tamil Nadu. [219], The tourism industry of Tamil Nadu is the largest in India, with an annual growth rate of 16 per cent. [81] The sex ratio of the state is 995 with 36,137,975 males and 36,009,055 females. [145][146] Services contributes to 45 per cent of the economic activity in the state, followed by manufacturing at 34 per cent and agriculture at 21 per cent. [13][14] In Adichanallur, 24 km (15 mi) from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, skeletons, bones, husks, grains of rice, charred rice, and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago. [42] British reduced the French dominions in India to Puducherry. Ramachandran Central Railway Station is the gateway for trains towards the north whereas Chennai Egmore serves as the gateway for the south. In Tamil Nadu, the television industry is influenced by politics and majority of the channels are owned by politicians or people with political links. Some of the notable educational institutes present in Tamil Nadu are Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Anna University, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, College of Engineering, Guindy, Madras Institute of Technology, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Indian Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University, Tamil Nadu National Law University, Government Law College, Coimbatore, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Madras Medical College, Stanley Medical College, Madras Veterinary College, University of Madras, Vellore Institute of Technology, Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore Medical College and Institute of Road and Transport Technology. The loco shed at Erode is a huge composite electric and diesel Loco shed. Tourism in Tamil Nadu is promoted by Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation (TTDC), a government of Tamil Nadu undertaking. The state has a range of flora and fauna with many species and habitats. [141] It ranks third in foreign direct investment (FDI) approvals (cumulative 1991–2002) of ₹225.826 billion ($5,000 million), next only to Maharashtra and Delhi constituting 9.12 per cent of the total FDI in the country. The number of deaths at areas decreased from 1,053 in 2011 to 881 in 2012 and 867 in 2013.[183]. The Kalpakkam Nuclear Power Plant, Ennore Thermal Plant, Neyveli Lignite Power Plant, many hydroelectric plants including Mettur Dam, hundreds of windmills and the Narimanam Natural Gas Plants are major sources of Tamil Nadu's electricity. Tamil Nadu has six Nationalised Home Banks which originated in this state; Two government-sector banks Indian Bank and Indian Overseas Bank in Chennai, and four private-sector banks City Union Bank in Kumbakonam, Karur Vysya Bank, Lakshmi Vilas Bank in Karur, and Tamilnad Mercantile Bank Limited in Tuticorin. The Vellore mutiny on 10 July 1806 was the first instance of a large-scale mutiny by Indian sepoys against the British East India Company, predating the Indian Rebellion of 1857 by half a century. During the administration of Governor George Harris (1854–1859) measures were taken to improve education and increase the representation of Indians in the administration. The scores from the class 12 (combined with the class 11)board examinations are used by universities to determine eligibility and as a cut-off for admissions into their programmes. [46] He was captured by the British at the end of the war and hanged near Kayattar in 1799. Districts are further divided into 226 Taluks administrated by Tahsildars comprising 1127 Revenue blocks administrated by Revenue Inspector (RI). Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah surrendered much of his territory to the East India Company which firmly established the British in the northern parts. [166] Major global automobile companies including BMW, Ford, Robert Bosch, Renault-Nissan, Caterpillar, Hyundai, Mitsubishi Motors, and Michelin as well as Indian automobile majors like Mahindra & Mahindra, Ashok Leyland, Eicher Motors, Isuzu Motors, TI cycles, Hindustan Motors, TVS Motors, Irizar-TVS, Royal Enfield, MRF, Apollo Tyres, TAFE Tractors, Daimler AG Company invested ₹4 billion for establishing a new plant in Tamil Nadu. [200] Kamuthi Solar Power Project was commissioned by Adani Power in Kamuthi, Ramanathapuram district. Though this finding remains contested, like the claim of historian Michel Danino who rubbishes the theory of the latter's southward migration in a paper he presented at the International Symposium on Indus Civilisation and Tamil Language in 2007. The Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve is in the southwest of the state bordering Kerala in the Western Ghats. In 1972, M. G. Ramachandran founded the new Dravidian party All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) named after his political mentor C. N. Annadurai popularly called "Anna". I want all books for upsc. He wrote: ‘There is no archaeological evidence of a southward migration through the Deccan after the end of the urban phase of the Indus Valley Civilisation The only actual evidence of movements at that period is of Late Harappans migrating towards the Ganges plains and towards Gujarat... Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas: no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals, crafts and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been increasingly documented in North India, but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! It is one of the oldest cantilever bridges still in operation, the double-leaf bascule bridge section can be raised to let boats and small ships pass through the Palk Strait in the Indian Ocean. The celebrated Nataraja temple at Chidambaram and the Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam, Tiruchirappalli, held special significance for the Cholas which have been mentioned in their inscriptions as their tutelary deities. In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggest that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 1,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa. The volume of cargo in the ports grew by 13 per cent during 2005. Tamil Nadu is one of the most literate states in India. After the fall of Kingdom of Mysore, the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai, then known as Madras, as a metropolitan city. Vasudevan Baskaran was the captain of the Indian team that won the gold medal in the 1980 Olympics in Moscow. Edit. After the demise of C. N. Annadurai, M. Karunanidhi became the leader of the party which was supported by majority leaders including then famous actor M. G. Ramachandran. Tamil Nadu's coastline bore the brunt of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami when it hit India, which caused 7,793 direct deaths in the state. [138], Thoothukudi is the place of origin of the Thoothukudi macaroon, Tirunelveli is known for its wheat Halva, Salem is renowned for its unique mangoes, Madurai is the place of origin of the milk dessert Jigarthanda while Palani is known for its Panchamirtham. Regional parties have dominated state politics since 1916. The reason for the victory of the Justice Party in elections was the non-participation of the INC, demanding complete independence of India. The top engineering colleges in Tamil Nadu have been a major recruiting hub for the IT firms. Namakkal is also one of the major centres of egg production in India. The Cholas were prolific temple builders right from the times of the first medieval king Vijayalaya Chola. [63][64] In 2003, the state had a total police population ratio of 1:668, higher than the national average of 1:717. [98] The Midday Meal Scheme programme in Tamil Nadu was first initiated by Kamaraj, then it was expanded by M G Ramachandran in 1983. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centres or port cities of the Sangam Era. To the east is the Bay of Bengal and the state encircles the union territory of Puducherry. Protected areas provide safe habitat for large mammals including elephants, tigers, leopards, wild dogs, sloth bears, gaurs, lion-tailed macaques, Nilgiri langurs, Nilgiri tahrs, grizzled giant squirrels and sambar deer, resident and migratory birds such as cormorants, darters, herons, egrets, open-billed storks, spoonbills and white ibises, little grebes, Indian moorhen, black-winged stilts, a few migratory ducks and occasionally grey pelicans, marine species such as the dugongs, turtles, dolphins, Balanoglossus and a wide variety of fish and insects. The state accounted for 13.6 per cent of all accidents in the country with 66,238 accidents in 2013, 11.3 per cent of all road accident deaths and 15 per cent of all road-related injuries, according to data provided by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. The YMCA College of Physical Education at Nandanam in Chennai was established in 1920 and was the first college for physical education in Asia. [114] Tamil Lexicon, published by the University of Madras, is the first among the dictionaries published in any Indian language. The entry age in class 1 is 5+. [49] The revolt, which took place in Vellore, was brief, lasting one full day, but brutal as mutineers broke into the Vellore fort and killed or wounded 200 British troops, before they were subdued by reinforcements from nearby Arcot. The fall of the Vijayanagara empire and the Chandragiri Nayakas gave the sultanate of Golconda a chance to expand into the Tamil heartland. [89], As per the religious census of 2011, Tamil Nadu had 87.58% Hindus, 6.12% Christians, 5.86% Muslims, 0.12% Jains and 0.3% following other religions or no religion. [113] Notable example of Tamil poetry include the Tirukkural written by Tiruvalluvar. Due to increased population and for administrative purposes, there is an increase in demands for new districts: The state capital of Chennai, is the most populous city in the state with more than 8,900,000 residents, followed by Coimbatore, Madurai, Trichy and Salem, respectively. Traditional Tamil grammar consists of five parts, namely eḻuttu, sol, poruḷ, yāppu, aṇi. [35] The Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil Nadu has seen major investments in the automobile industry over many decades manufacturing cars, railway coaches, battle-tanks, tractors, motorcycles, automobile spare parts and accessories, tyres and heavy vehicles. The Sangam literature collection contains 2381 poems composed by 473 poets, some 102 of whom remain anonymous. [167], Tamil Nadu is one of the highly industrialised states in India. However, due to the differences between its two leaders E. V. Ramasamy and C. N. Annadurai, the party was split. It has the largest number of International Airports along with Kerala. During the 9th century, the Chola dynasty was once again revived by Vijayalaya Chola, who established Thanjavur as Chola's new capital by conquering central Tamil Nadu from Mutharaiyar and the Pandya king Varagunavarman II. [112] The available literature from this period was categorised and compiled in the 10th century into two categories based roughly on chronology. The state has 17,000 hectares of land under oil palm cultivation, the second highest in India. [92] As of 2001 census Tamil is spoken as the first language by nearly 90 per cent of the state's population followed by Telugu (5.65%), Kannada (1.67%), Urdu (1.51%), Malayalam (0.89%).[4]. [147], The state is the largest producer of bananas, turmeric, flowers,[149] tapioca,[149] the second largest producer of mango,[149] natural rubber,[150] coconut, groundnut and the third largest producer of coffee, sapota,[149] Tea[151] and sugarcane. [147] Chennai Port is an artificial harbour situated on the Coromandel Coast and is the second principal port in the country for handling containers. When it comes to yarn production, the State contributes 40 per cent of the total production in the country. [53] Pamban Island and a group of smaller limestone shoals make up the northern portion of Adam's Bridge, which was formerly a natural bridge linking India with Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is mostly dependent on monsoon rains and thereby is prone to droughts when the monsoons fail. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with ₹18.45 trillion (US$260 billion) in gross domestic product with a per capita GDP of ₹218,000 (US$3,100). Loco sheds are located at Erode, Arakkonam, Royapuram in Chennai and Tondaiyarpet in Chennai, Ponmalai (GOC) in Tiruchirappalli as Diesel Loco Shed. Failure of the summer monsoons and administrative shortcomings of the Ryotwari system resulted in two severe famines in the Madras Presidency, the Great Famine of 1876–78 and the Indian famine of 1896–97. The Tamil Nadu legislative assembly is housed at the Fort St. George in Chennai. Common plant species include the state tree: palmyra palm, eucalyptus, rubber, cinchona, clumping bamboos (Bambusa arundinacea), common teak, Anogeissus latifolia, Indian laurel, grewia, and blooming trees like Indian labumusum, ardisia, and solanaceae. The history of Tamil Nadu goes back to the early stone age. Almost every part of the state is well connected by buses 24 hours a day. This festival is also called Kumbamela of South.[120][121]. [47] They formed a coalition with Dheeran Chinnamalai and Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja which fought the British in Second Polygar Wars. The bordering states are Kerala to the west, Karnataka to the north-west and Andhra Pradesh to the north. The World Bank is currently assisting the state in reducing poverty, high drop-out and low completion of secondary schools continue to hinder the quality of training in the population. It is believed that the Dravidians of Tamil country were once a part of the early Indus Valley settlers and moved south after the advent of the Aryans around 1500 BC. It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. [62] The Tamil Nadu Police Force is over 140 years old. A large part of the government records like land ownership records are digitised and all major offices of the state government like Urban Local Bodies – all the corporations and municipal office activities – revenue collection, land registration offices, and transport offices have been computerised. Ramachandran Central Railway Station, Madurai Junction, Katpadi Junction, Chennai Egmore, Salem Junction, Tiruchirappalli Junction, Coimbatore Junction are upgraded to A1 grade level. Chennai International Airport is a major international airport and aviation hub in South Asia. Products manufactured include circuit boards and cellular phone handsets. Tamil Nadu has 37 universities, 552 engineering colleges[96] 449 polytechnic colleges[97] and 566 arts and science colleges, 34,335 elementary schools, 5,167 high schools, 5,054 higher secondary schools and 5,000 hospitals. Legislative powers are given to the Governor's council under the Indian Councils Act 1861 and 1909 Minto-Morley Reforms eventually led to the establishment of the Madras Legislative Council. The Tamil Nadu State Board of School Examination evaluates students' progress by conducting three board examinations-one at the end of class 10 and the others at the end of class 11 & 12. Tamil Nadu staat bekend om de vele hindoetempels van de Dravidische architectuur, zoals in de stad Madurai.. Er worden jaarlijks veel Tamilfilms uitgebracht door de filmindustrie in Madras, waardoor de filmindustrie ook wel bekendstaat als Kollywood (vernoemd naar de plaats Kodambakkam bij Madras waar veel filmstudio's staan).
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