Can be used to treat the terrain of certain types of structuro-functional spasmophilics, Actions: CNS: sedative; ANS: para-sympatholytic, sympatholytic, ENDO: gonadotropic: estrogenic, inhibits FSH (relays information of peripheral estrogen sufficiency); GI: eupeptic, spasmolytic; GU: antispasmodic, antiinflammatory to urinary tract. This plant has been used in a variety of practical applications in medical science. A novel pharmacological mechanism of action for the anxiolytic botanical Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is reported. There is evidence to suggest that M. officinalis enhances cholinergic transmission, based on the fact that it binds to both nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors within the central nervous system (Perry et al., 1996; Wake et al., 2000). The weight of 1000 seeds is 0.5–0.7 g. A long storage period causes a reduction in germination vigour. Lemon balm increases GABA by inhibiting GABA transaminase, an enzyme that breaks it down. Relieving insomnia. Lemon balm has a hairy root system with many lateral roots, which makes the plant more adaptable to different environmental conditions. Lemon balm is a natural antispasmodic Lemon balm is a cross-pollinating species, and has complete perfect flowers with very short-stalked epidermal glands. Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a cultivated perennial lemon scented herb. In Victorian times lemon balm was used as a symbolic plant for transmitting messages between lovers. Cognitive function, as measured by the ADAS-Cog and clinical dementia rating scale, was found to be significantly improved in comparison to placebo at four months. Hyperthyroidism and hyperthyroid-like symptoms including anxiety and insomnia, and Grave’s disease. Their in vivo findings indicate that M. officinalis L. extract inhibit the HSV-2 replication at nontoxic doses [42]. Homeopathically it is sometimes also used for menstrual irregularities. The London Dispensary (1696) stated, ‘An essence of Balm, given in Canary wine, every morning will renew youth, strengthen the brain, relieve languishing nature and prevent baldness’. Ravindran, ... G.S. Lemon balm may exhibit glycemic control, as per studies. Melissa is generally considered to be safe and well tolerated within recommended dosing ranges.7. Lemon balm is also used in homeopathic medicine for menstrual irregularities. Melissa inhibits the ability of Grave’s autoantibodies to bind TSH receptors and promote intracellular cAMP responses, thereby reducing adenylate cyclase–driven signal transduction and the resulting increase in thyroid hormone output.1,4, There are currently no published clinical studies on Melissa for thyroid disorders, although there are several studies investigating Melissa for anxiety and sleep disorders.5, One randomized controlled trial using Melissa extract reported the occurrence of “side effects” that included reduced alertness as well as palpitation and thyroid hormone inhibition.6. Questions about Benzos and GABA modulators such as Bacopa, Lemon Balm, Kava, Theanine With all the recent news linking regular use of benzodiazepines to an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease, I read into this further and have a couple of questions. Lemon balm is said to soothe symptoms of stress, help you to relax, and … Scientific Name: Melissa officinalis. 2016;188:204–28. Lemon balm is a plant used as an herbal supplement. This plant has potential in the management of Alzheimer’s disease, ADHD, and General Anxiety Disorder. The use of lemon balm in treating HSV has an extensive history because of its viral inhibitory effects, which interrupt the replication of the virus. These effects were found to decrease as the dose was increased, with the authors speculating that two distinct mechanisms of action could explain the results. Additionally, when subjects were subjected to laboratory stressor Melissa increased calmness (Kennedy et al., 2004b) and in combination with Valerian, lemon balm decreased state anxiety (Kennedy et al., 2006) at a lower dose but increased it at a higher level. Some vernacular names are balm, common balm, blue balm, dropsy plant, honey plant, Herzkraut, citronelle, cytria, cedronella, badarendjabouya, alahana, mallisa, ogulotu, kovanotu, seiyo-yama-hakka, sweet balm, limouna, limounneta, franjmeshk, toronjil, tronjan, turungan, melisso, melliss, sidrunmeliss, Melissenblatter, Melissenkraut and Melissa (WHO, 2002). Researchers have tested both lemon balm essential oil and extract … Melissa officinalis goes by the common name lemon balm because of the strong lemon aroma released from the leaves. Accuracy at attention was found to be significantly improved following the middle dose of 600 mg of M. officinalis, however at the highest dose (900 mg) decrements in memory performance together with reduced alertness were observed. Melissa officinalis has … Lemon Balm Extract has been long used for its health benefits including lowering triglycerides, mood improvement and cardiac rythm regulation. Actions: Neuro-Muscular: Neurologic antispasmodic (GABA-ergic), digestive antispasmodic (neurotropic); ANS: Vagolytic; GI: anti-nausea, stomachic, apertif (increases gastric and pancreatic secretions), carminitive; DRAINAGE: Splanchnic, pancreatic, pelvic, uteric; ID: Antibacterial, Antiviral (ENT, digestive, genitourinary, cutaneous tropisms), anti-mitotic; METABOLIC: Anti-hyperglycemant; IMMUNE: antihistamine, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant; ENDO: Gonado: mildly estrogenic. Lemon balm cream has shown some efficacy in herpes virus lesions in a few small placebo-controlled trials. The pharmacological models used in the studies together with the putative mechanisms of action of the main constituents are also detailed. The main compounds of the commercial oils are citronellal, geranial (citral a), and neral (citral b). Fresh leaves are best for tea, but dried leaves can also be used…, Lemon balm flowers also have culinary use. The putative biologically active compounds in M. officinalis include monoterpenoid aldehydes (including citronellal, neral and geranial), flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds such as rosmarinic acid and monoterpene glycosides (Mulkens et al., 1985; Carnat et al., 1998; Sadraei et al., 2003). They also determined the chemical composition of lemon balm. George M. Kapalka, in Nutritional and Herbal Therapies for Children and Adolescents, 2010. There is also some evidence that 50 mg of isolated valepriates of Valerian having an anxiolytic effect (in generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) patients) with four weeks treatment (Andreatini et al., 2002). This low-growing, herbaceous plant has been used traditionally for mood disorders, insomnia, infections, and the symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Lemon balm has a documented medicinal history extending back to 50–80 BC (Kennedy et al., 2003). In another study, the effects of various anxiolytic botanicals and their action on enzymes involved with GABA were investigated. It was a symbol of sympathy and used to make soothing medicines. Following a similar crossover design to the previous study, 600 mg, 1000 mg and 1600 mg M. officinalis extract vs placebo was then administered to 20 healthy young participants. Following its introduction into Spain in the seventh century, its use spread throughout Europe by the middle ages. 7 J Ethnopharmacol. It has been used in Mediterranean region and Europe since the Middle Ages for several purposes such as regulating sleep, appetite and digestion, reducing anxiety and a pain relief. Thus the empirical evidence for lemon balm administration is largely in keeping with its traditional use as a calming agent. The seeds are very small about 1–1.5 mm long, ovate, dark brown or black in colour. S. Kokkini, ... E. Hanlidou, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003. Traditionally, lemon balm was used as a mild sedative and anxiolytic, though several herbal apothecaries of the time created balm with general beneficial effects upon the brain and in particular with specific improvements to memory (Kennedy et al., 2002b). Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances. Lemon balm taken internally can aid in reducing anxiety, restlessness, irritability and agitation of all types, and improve the mood, sleep, cognitive function, and mental concentration in therapeutic doses. The aromatic oils of lemon balm will soothe the nervous system, thus reducing anxiety. Melissa officinalis L. - A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Since excess lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues is suggested to be responsible for the development of insulin resistance, this study was undertaken to examine whether the lemon balm extract ALS-L1023 regulates hepatic lipid accumulation, obesity, and insulin resistance and to determine whether its mechanism of action involves PPARα. Rosmarinic acid also forms “adducts” with TSH. 6 J Herb Pharmacother. Medicinal lemon balm preparations include teas/infusions, tinctures, syrups, baths/foot baths, capsules, pills, powders, poultices, salves, steams, fomentations, oil, liquid and dried extracts. The Herb Society of America guide to Lemon balm (2007) records the following culinary (and household) uses for lemon balm: Lemon balm is a surprisingly versatile culinary herb which can be used to flavor many different types of dishes, from beverages, to appetizers, main courses and desserts. Lemon balm is an ingredient in liqueurs like Benedictine and Chartreuse. In ancient times, it was also believed to drive away evil from a house when it was grown in front of the door. Indeed, another review of literature concluded that lemon balm is not effective as a sleep aid (Morin et al., 2007). Lemon balm’s lemony flavor and aroma are due largely to citral and citronellal, although other phytochemicals, including geraniol (which is rose-scented) and linalool (which is lavender-scented), also contribute to lemon balm’s scent. This means that it has a mechanism of action that is generally comparable to what MAOIs are doing for monoamines and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are doing for acetylcholine. However, large variation in receptor binding affinities have been noted between varying strains and preparations of M. officinalis, with the more reliable action of the plant across samples being its calming effects (Kennedy et al., 2003). In relation to the chronic effects of M. officinalis, a study by Akhondzadeh and colleagues (Akhondzadeh et al., 2003a) investigated the efficacy of 60 drops/day tincture vs placebo over a four-month period in 35 patients with mild to moderate AD, aged 65 and 80 years. In vitro analysis of the extract revealed low binding affinity for nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, prompting Kennedy and colleagues to conduct a further study using an extract with greater cholinergic activity. P.N. 1 In addition, lemon balm extract also has the ability to inhibit protein synthesis at the level of elongation factor eEF-2. inodora and subsp. altissima (Mill, 1982; Craker and Simon, 1992). 5 Med J Nutrition Metab. 23.1. It is characterised by square stems, lemon-scented and scalloped edge leaves, and flowers that mature from white or yellow to pale blue. Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a plant that is sometimes used in its dried form (or by extracting its oil) as an antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-oxidative agent. Allahverdiyev et al. While no significant dangers are associated with the use of lemon balm and the herb is usually well tolerated, its use as a sleep aid is not likely to produce any beneficial effects and parents and clinicians are encouraged to try more effective alternatives. Library » Botanical Medicine Monographs » Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis 2). Likewise, the lemon balm herb's sedative properties can be used to promote sleep. At the lowest dose (600 mg) performance decrements were noted for the same timed memory tasks used in the previous study, together with a newly introduced task of rapid visual information processing (RVIP). Presumably the cholinergic effect associated with the extract was responsible for the improvements to cognition, an effect which only counteracted a sedative effect at the higher dosage levels (> 1000 mg). It was brought to America from Europe by colonists and started to grow in their gardens. showed the antiviral effect of volatile oils of M. officinalis against HSV-1 and HSV-2 viruses. Lemon balm is … 2003;26(10):950–5. Therapeutic applications of caryophyllene oxide could exploit the antifungal efficacy observed in clinical study of onychomycosis compared to ciclopiroxalamine and sulconazole, with an 8% concentration affecting eradication in 15 days (Yang, Michel, Chaumont, & Millet-Clerc, 1999). How does it work (mechanism of action)? | Terms & Conditions, Register for Our Herbal Fellowship Program, Mission & Vision for Restorative Medicine. And has been cultivated for well over 2,000 years. When thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) binds to the outer membrane of thyroid cells, it triggers a cAMP response on the inside of the cell via adenylate cyclase enzyme activation. Since the maximal nontoxic concentration was determined to be 100 mg/mL, they used this concentration in all experiments to test the effects of volatile oils on virus replication. ESCOP (European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy) recommends the external use of lemon balm for cold sores and the internal use for tenseness, restlessness, irritability, digestive disorders and minor spasms. Summary: A highly useful, non-sedating spasmolytic with neuro-digestive-uterine tropism. They also determined the chemical composition of lemon balm. In the commercial food industry, lemon balm oil and extract are used to flavor alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, candy, baked goods, gelatin, pudding and frozen dairy desserts. A survey of ten anxiolytic botanicals was reported recently and an extract of Melissa officinalis was found to be the best inhibitor of in vitro GABA-T activity from rat brain (Awad et al., 2007). Lemon Balm is known for its anti-anxiety and calming effects, improving focus, memory and cognition, and reducing irritability and depression. A study… showed that a 600 mg dose of standardized M. officinalis extract improved mood, calmness and alertness, and a 300 mg dose increased the subjects’ mathematical processing speed. It is used in cases of anxiety, neurosis and nervous excitability, palpitation and headache, and also in hyperthyroidism. One study examined a chemically-validated essential oil derived from Melissa and found that Melissa inhibited binding of GABAA to receptor channel in the rat forebrain, but had no effect on or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (Abuhamdah et al., 2008). Because of particular electromagnetic affinities, rosmarinic acid forms loose bonds with endogenous TSH, thereby reducing its ability to bind and agonize TSH receptors.3 This may reduce thyroxine output in cases of hyperthyroidism. However, large variation in receptor binding affinities have been noted between varying strains and preparations of Melissa officinalis, with the more reliable action of the plant across samples being its calming effects (Kennedy et al., 2003b). Custom tincture #2, 3 mL twice per day for adreno-gonadotropic imbalances: BID, twice per day; DE, dry extract; EO, essential oil; GM, glycerin macerate; MT, mother tincture. May be useful against diabetes. 2011;4(3):211–8. Also known as gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps send messages between the brain and the nervous system. The patient was advised that she could continue the following of her current treatments: The patient was requested to discontinue the following of her current treatments: Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy with emphasis on trauma and gynecologic function, Ethan B. Russo, Jahan Marcu, in Advances in Pharmacology, 2017. 3 Endocrinology. At the highest dosage level of 1600 mg performance on the Quality of Memory factor of the CDR was found to be significantly improved at both 3 and 6 hours post-dose. In relation to cognitive effects, two recent studies by Kennedy and colleagues (Kennedy et al., 2002, 2003) have investigated the effects of acute administration. These components are absorbed readily following oral ingestion of Melissa. Any cognition-modulating effects of Melissa officinalis are likely due to its actions in the cholinergic system (nicotinic and muscarinic receptors). Ulbricht C, et al. It is also approved by Commission E as a treatment for nervousness and insomnia, and it is commonly used in folk medicine to treat anxiety, gastric complaints (especially associated with stress), hysteria, melancholia, nervous palpitations, migraine, headaches, and high blood pressure. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. There are no published studies on the safety of Melissa during pregnancy or breastfeeding. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Neurocognitive effects of herbal extracts, Lifetime Nutritional Influences on Cognition, Behaviour and Psychiatric Illness, Development of New Antiherpetic Drugs Based on Plant Compounds, Adil M. Allahverdiyev, ... Olga Nehir Oztel, in, Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts, Essential Oils and Their Components, Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), Kamyar M. Hedayat, Jean-Claude Lapraz, in, Nutritional and Herbal Therapies for Children and Adolescents, Handbook of Herbs and Spices (Second Edition), Volume 2, The Herb Society of America guide to Lemon balm (2007), Therapeutics according to an Endobiogenic reflection, Yang, Michel, Chaumont, & Millet-Clerc, 1999.
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