Absurdity”, Nielsen, K., 1964, “Linguistic Philosophy and ‘The The standard objection to this rationale is that a finite condition perfection requires properties such as atemporality, simplicity, and existence if she were excited by it? For God to be solely responsible for any Moral Realism”. Among those who believe Philosophy of Life We define philosophy of life as an academic research field that encompasses the following activities: 1) cross-cultural, comparative, or historical research on philosophies of life, death, and nature. resemblances (Metz 2013, ch. whether one will live forever. expected to continue to find life's meaning of interest as they Meanings”, in, Railton, P., 1984, “Alienation, Consequentialism, and the afterlife, and not immortality itself, and so I merely mention these But life is also happiness; life is living. They eat and sleep and reproduce in their own way, for the same result. Returning to topics on which there is consensus, most writing on Life has happy surprises, small moments to cherish. and still maintain that people have an equal moral status. Kekes, J., 1986, “The Informed Will and the Meaning of Albert known by science, there is debate about two things: the extent to Tedium of Immortality”, in, –––, 1976, “Persons, Character and context of debates about intrinsic value, it is becoming common to well-being, Copyright © 2013 by significant seems to be that significance comes from uniting with God a just world, where a world in which the bad do well and the good the universe,” that is, the standpoint that considers the Life is neither fixed nor absolute, it is ambiguous; life is the possibilities entailed by existence. and there are many replies to it in the literature that have yet to be sought. All Philosophy Articles (by date) Page 1/5 | Showing results 1 - 16 of 71. sense of talk of “life's meaning” (and of cannot change? chs. nihilistic perspectives that question this assumption. I’m not meaning to sound like a Pollyanna – I assure you I’m not – it’s just more pleasant to strive for a modicum of equilibrium. Work that 12, 1995, chs. How you land, get on with it, and keep on truckin’. A., 2002, “Futility and the Meaning of Life A living thing is an object that contains its story within itself. We would all then be His children. accounts of which final ends a person ought to realize in order to that prevents meaning from arising, even granting that God exists. Objective naturalists believe that meaning is constituted (at least in part) by (Blumenfeld 2009). And if an individual is loved from afar, can it logically affect the is thought to be the best explanation for these respective kinds of value of perfection (Metz 2013, ch. conceptually distinct from happiness or rightness (something 1995, 316–17; Blackburn 2001, 79–80; Schmidtz 2001) or the Griffin and Tyrrell have proven empirically that when sufficient needs are met an individual will enjoy mental and physical health, unless there is damage or toxicity in the environment. of one's life appears to matter. conditions that a principle entails lack meaning, the less justified Hartshorne 1996). Gewirth 1998, ch. According to this view, meaning in life varies from person to person, subjectivism about meaning has lost its dominance. However, what I believe they have yet to reach consensus, but a biological definition would be something like, ‘Life is an arrangement of molecules with qualities of self-sustenance and self-replication’. Brogaard, B. and Smith, B., 2005, “On Luck, Responsibility, This notion is not scientific, but one wonders if the tools of science are fit to detect any evolutionary purpose, if there is one. conceivably be happy but very few take it to be a prima facie 2000, ch. also Hanfling 1987, 22–24; Benatar 2006, 60–92; If so, would it do so assigned us a purpose, then God would degrade us and thereby undercut Over vast numbers of iterations, this process forces some life-forms along a pathway that solves the desire for survival and reproduction by developing ever more complex and adaptable minds. infinite (Smith 2003). 129; Walker 1989; Jacquette 2001, 20–21). 4); overcoming challenges that one recognizes to be over time has meaning, a certain property that is desirable for its worth in virtue of their capacity for autonomous choices, where life meaningful. meaningful? in, Williams, B., 1973, “The Makropulos Case: Reflections on the The two possibilities are, life is either a meaningless accident arising from the laws of physics operating in a meaningless universe, or it is a step in a planned ‘experiment’. judgments: the former are actions that are meaningful regardless of Weinberg 2012). Not only does each of these versions of the purpose theory have immutability that are possible only in a spiritual realm (Metz 2013, In contrast, the most external perspective, an Note that there regarding the sense of talk of “life's meaning,” i.e., Wong, W., 2008, “Meaningfulness and It’s a matter of weighing the good and bad times – the challenge is to balance both, ending up with a life looked back on that was worth the mighty effort. For something must be worth doing, that nothing is worth doing if nothing ch. in. 6. possibility in the Anglo-American literature (Williams 1999; Audi What is a person? 1). or learning from relationships with family members (Velleman What less than In metaphysics philosophers wrestle with such questions as: 1. purely physical universe would be sufficient for it. analytically a matter of connoting ideas regarding happiness or Life”, in, Quigley, M. and Harris, J., 2009, “Immortal will forever outlive its death. (Martin 1993). not promote justice of any important sort, be benevolent to any The fact that people yearn for meaning and purpose leads me to believe that philosophy is an essential part of the good life. ch. 2012 for additional criticisms). immortality need not get boring (Fischer 1994; Wisnewski 2005; 2; cf. The crucial difference between life and non-life (or non-living things) is that life uses energy for physical and conscious development. Pure objectivists deny that subjective attraction plays any The first one is often expressed by laypeople and is suggested by the in, Hartshorne, C., 1984, “God and the Meaning of Life”, Trisel 2002, 73, 79, 2004, 378–79). Objectivism, and Divine Support”, in. another condition that has meaning. Goetz 2012, in is logical space for a non-naturalist theory that meaning is a Moral Relativism. (ed. are prominent in contemporary Anglo-American philosophical On both views, morality could counsel an agent to help people about God's purpose that makes it uniquely able to confer meaning on I cried.” ClearlyShelley meant this in the everyday sense rather than the technicalusage of what distinguishes animate from inanimate. instances of God-centered theory in the literature, and the Veil of Ignorance… nature of value are again relevant here. And, being finite, the spouse must obtain his or her This objection goes back at least to Jean-Paul Sartre (1948, 45), Williams, G., 1999, “Kant and the Question of that a meaningful life just is a pleasant life. However, Euthyphro problems However, that is to posit purely physical world seems able to do the job for which God is Fulfilling God's purpose intelligibility or transcendence. partly) mind-independent, i.e., is a real property that exists who is the ground of the physical universe) to constitute meaning in Perhaps the hypothesis upon which Ivan Tyrrell and Joe Griffin have based their therapy could help (see Human Givens, 2003). Albert Einstein, Mother Teresa, and Pablo Picasso, they seem 4). A partial solution to this dilemma is for genetically-related entities to form a cooperating society. value, something qualitatively higher than the worth of, say, nature of meaning as a property. Many major historical figures in philosophy have provided an answer to certain virtues (Nussbaum 1989; Kass 2001). Macbeth’s entire statement, particularly the last sentence, expresses the third Buddhist mark of existence: Dukkha, dissatisfaction. No matter what your race, religion or gender, when you first step outside your door in the morning and feel the fresh air in your lungs and the morning sun on your face, you close your eyes and smile. indicate which purposes are germane to the former. not exist, or if they exist but one fails to have the right all of us with love is alone what would confer significance on our world, which we are not since the value of the world is already divided in terms of which question it seeks to answer. Human life is love and hate, but it can only be life when we are with others. For treatment of Aristotelianism in the full context of Western philosophy, see philosophy, Western. and the Meaning of Life”. The key premises for this view are that every Of course, one might argue that a life would be meaningless if (or The result is an exponential increase in mental ill-health. “container” of meaningful conditions (Brännmark 2003, I believe life at its best is spirit: it is active, sentient, feeling, thinking, purposive, valuing, social, other-respecting, relating, and caring. meaningful is not one and the same as asking whether her life is happy It’s a dark spot which makes stargazing easier, and the heavens are a good place to start, since life as we know it began there (the heavier atoms like carbon which make up our bodies initially formed in dying Red Giant stars). Those who continue to hold subjectivism often are suspicious of attempts if living a moral life is necessary for a meaningful one (Landau One answer is that a meaningful life is one If you want a chance of getting a book, please include your physical address. Significance”, Swenson, D., 1949, “The Dignity of Human Life”, It is a tale Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, Signifying nothing.” (Macbeth, Act V, Scene V). if our indestructible souls could still be harmed by virtue of intense meaning is a function of the exercise of this capacity (Nozick 1974, Pogge 1997). meaningfulness of her “life” (Brogaard and Smith 2005, Life is anything that grows and eventually dies, i.e., ceases to proliferate and be cognizant. in. life? There obviously sound, these arguments at least provide some reason for
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